This analysis wouldn’t have been possible without the years of incredible work invested by Democracy Club and thousands of volunteers, who believe that democracy is better served by open, accessible data. We certainly think so, and we thank them for their incredible contribution.
About This Data
This blog is 50:50’s analysis of the candidate data for the 2019 General Election. You can view a granular version of this data on our website at 5050parliament.co.uk/5050data. In this blog post we analyse the data in an effort to understand the aggregate picture.
We have made some assumptions in preparing the data:
- The majority of candidates identify as male or female. Many candidates have limited online presence making it hard for volunteers entering the data to ascertain their gender. Therefore most genders are assigned based on, e.g., pronouns used in news articles, social media profile images, or first names.
- The incumbent party for each constituency has been defined as the party of the MP on the day Parliament was dissolved, according to TheyWorkForYou, with the addition of the Conservative MPs who had the whip restored and the defection of 5 MPs to the Liberal Democrats
- There is unlikely to ever be a “final” dataset. The nature of the crowdsourcing and manual data entry inevitably leads to mistakes, which Democracy Club fix over time. The data presented in this blog post does not update automatically but may be refreshed from time to time.
We welcome both feedback on these assumptions and any comments or feedback on the quality of our analysis. We would be happy to share our code (Python). Contact email@example.com for more information.
There has been a total increase of only 16 candidates between 2017 and 2019. This is a small change compared to 2015/2017, when the number of candidates decreased by 667
The 2019 and 2017 numbers differ very slightly (by 1 or 2) from the BBC / Wikipedia reported numbers. We are using Democracy Club’s numbers
How Many Female, How Many Male?
There are more female (and fewer male) candidates than there were in the last two elections. There are more female candidates than any UK election in history.
At the time of writing, the total number of female candidates (1123) differs by 1 from the BBC’s count of 1124; we have four candidates remaining with an unknown gender.
As a proportion of all male and female candidates, the 2019 election will again break records. 2019 has seen the same percentage point increase in the number of female candidates as we saw between 2015 and 2017.
These percentages are calculated as total female over total male+female (i.e. excluding candidates with unknown and non-binary genders)
Single Gender Ballots
One very tangible impact of an unequal spread of genders is an unusual number of single-gender ballots, where the voter chooses between candidates all of the same gender.
We have seen a 23% drop in all-male ballots between 2017 and 2019, an improvement on the 10% drop between 2015 and 2017. However, there are still 71 all-male ballots (compared to 4 all-female ballots).
According to BBC analysis, the House of Commons will lose more than 1,000 years of parliamentary experience as more than 70 incumbents have decided not to stand for election. This is an increase from only 31 retirements in 2017, but fewer than any other election since 1979
Below we look at the gender of the candidates parties have chosen to run in these retirement seats. For example, Ken Clarke has served as an MP for almost 50 years – making his Rushcliffe constituency a male seat for the duration. Who the Conservatives choose to stand in his place – and in the place of the other retirees – is important. In the absence of landslide elections (which arguably the UK has not seen since Labour’s in 1997), retirements are a way for political parties to affect the gender balance of Parliament.
Labour have 24 retirements. Over half of their male retirements (10 out of 17) have been replaced with female candidates. All of their female retirements have been replaced with female candidates
The Conservatives have 32 retirements. Just under half of their male retirements (11 out of 13) have been replaced with female candidates. Half of their female retirements have been replaced with male candidates (4 out of 8)